Early Australia - Convict Era
1788


1788 - Arrival of First Fleet with convicts at Botany Bay (18/1/1788). Governor Phillip moved the fleet north to Port Jackson to found the settlement  of Sydney (21/1/1788). Phillip took possession of eastern Australia for Britain (26/1/1788).
1788 - Arrival of French explorer, La Perouse, at Botany Bay (23/1/1788).
1788 - Arrival of convict ships Alexander; Charlotte; Friendship; Lady Penrhyn, Scarborough; Prince of Wales at Port Jackson (16/1/1788)
                (First Fleet).
1788 - Rev. Richard Johnson conducted first church service (3/2/1788).
1788 - Colony of New South Wales formally proclaimed and Governor s Commission read (7/2/1788).
1788 - Lieutenant Philip Gidley King left Sydney in the brig  Supply  to establish a settlement at Norfolk Island (14/2/1788).
1788 - Governor Phillip and party set out to find new area suitable for crops (at present day Parramatta) (24/4/1788).
1788 - Settlement of Rose Hill founded (later renamed Parramatta) (2/11/1788).
1788 - The construction of the first fortified position in the new colony at Point Maskelyne
            (later renamed Dawes Point), supervised by Lieutenant William Dawes.
1788 - Discovery of Lord Howe Island by Lieutenant Henry Lidgbird Ball.
 
                                                                                                                                                       


1789
1789 - Outbreak of smallpox among the Aborigines.
1789 - James Ruse established his farm at Parramatta (1/11/1789).
1789 - Commencement of the first road track in colony from Sydney town to Parramatta.
              Finished in 1791.
1789 - Captain Watkin Tench discovered the Nepean River.
1789 - Establishment of New South Wales Corps.
1789 - Lieutenant King appointed Lieutenant-Governor of the Norfolk Island settlement.
1789 - Bennelong, the Aborigine, was taken prisoner.

"1789 - Governor Phillip creates a Night Watch which commences duty on 8 August. Four three-man convict patrols guard Sydney Town. A Row Boat Guard is also quickly established on Sydney Harbour." (Source:Thin Blue Line)





1790
1790 - First detachment of NSW Corps arrived.
1790 - Sydney affected by food shortages (for next four years).
1790 - Sirius wrecked off Norfolk Island.
1790 - Governor Phillip speared in the shoulder by an Aborigine.
1790 - Arrival of convict ship Lady Juliana (3/6/1790) (Second Fleet).              
Bligh s Send Off by Robert Dodd, 1790                                            
1789 - Bounty crew mutineers (28/4/1789).

1790 - Arrival of convict ship Surprise (26/6/1790) (Second Fleet).
1790 - Arrival of convict ship Neptune (28/6/1790) (second fleet).
1790 - Arrival of convict ship Scarborough (28/6/1790) (second fleet).
1790 - Bounty crew arrived at Pitcairn Island (15/1/1790).
1790 - Arrival of the "Hillsborough"



1791
1791 - First land grant of 30 acres made to ex-convict, James Ruse (Experiment Farm) (30/3/1791).
1791 - Rose Hill renamed Parramatta (4/6/1791).
1791 - Military Barracks completed at Parramatta (May 1791).
1791 - Rev. Richard Johnson conducted the first Church of England  service at Parramatta.
1791 - Public protest after reduction of rations.
1791 - Arrival of convict ship Mary Ann (9/7/1791).
1791 - Arrival of convict ship Matilda (1/8/1791) (Third Fleet).
1791 - Arrival of convict ship Atlantic (20/8/1791) (Third Fleet).
1791 - Arrival of convict ship Salamander (21/88/1791) (third fleet).
1791 - Arrival of convict ship William and Ann (28/8/1791) (Third Fleet).
1791 - Arrival of convict ship Gorgon (21/9/1791) (Third Fleet).
1791 - Arrival of convict ship Active (26/9/1791) (Third Fleet).
1791 - Arrival of convict ship Queen (26/9/1791 (Third Fleet) (first convicts from Ireland).
1791 - Arrival of convict ship Albermarle (13/10/1791) (Third Fleet).
1791 - Arrival of convict ship Britannia (14/10/1791) (Third Fleet).
1791 - Arrival of convict ship Admiral Barrington (16/10/1791) (Third Fleet).
 
                                                                                                                                                                                           

1792
1792 - First American trading ships reach Sydney.
1792 - First survey map of the settlement prepared & signed by Governor Phillip (2/12/1792).
1792 - Ground for Sydney Burial Cemetery selected by Governor Phillip and Rev. Richard Johnson (site of Central Station)
1792 - Governor Phillip departs for England with the remainder of the NSW Marine Corps on the Atlantic.
1792 - NSW Corps begins trade monopoly.
1792 - Arrival of convict ship Pitt (14/2/1792).
1792 - Arrival of convict ship Royal Admiral (7/10/1792).
1792 - Arrival of convict ship Kitty (18/11/1792).

1737-1793
1792 - The French navigator Antoine D Entrecasteaux explored the southern coast of Australia and Tasmania.


1793
1793 - Arrival of the first free settlers from England. First sheep arrived in Australia.
1793 - Elizabeth Farm House built at Parramatta on 100 acres grant of John Macarthur.
1793 - First official Church School opened in Sydney.
1793 - Rev. Richard Johnson conducted first Church of England service in church built on corner of Hunter and Castlereagh Streets, Sydney.
1793 - Colonel Paterson surveyed Grose River.
1793 - Arrival of convict ship Bellona (16/1/1793).
1793 - Arrival of convict ship Boddingtons (7/8/1793).
1793 - Arrival of convict ship Sugar Cane (17/9/1793).
 
  1794                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
1794 - First road constructed to Parramatta.
1794 - Old Windsor Road (Hawkesbury Road) developed from Toongabbie Government Farm to the Hawkesbury River
            using convict labour.
1794 - Lieutenant-Governor Grose replaced as administrator of the Colony by Captain William Paterson of the NSW Corps.
1794 - Henry Hacking attempted to cross the Blue Mountains.
1794 - Arrival of convict ship Surprise (15/10/1794).
 
1795
1795 - First printing press established in Australia.
1795 - Horses from Cape of Good Hope arrive in Sydney.
1795 - Massive floods of the Hawkesbury River.
1795 - Port Stephens surveyed by Assistant Surveyor-General.
1795 - Governor John Hunter arrived in Sydney on the Reliance.

1795 - Bass and Flinders commence voyages in the  Tom Thumb .
1796
1796 - First theatrical performance at The Theatre, Sydney.
1796 - A naval dockyard is established at Sydney Cove.
1796 - First Parramatta Gaol constructed (on site of Prince Alfred Park).
1796 - Bushranger,  Black Caeser  shot dead.
1796 - George Bass attempted to cross the Blue Mountains.
1796 - Rev. Samuel Marsden opened first Church of England Church at Parramatta.
1796 - Arrival of convict ship Marquis Cornwallis (11/2/1796).
1796 - Arrival of convict ship Indispensible (30/4/1796).
 

1797
1797 - Lieutenant John Shortland discovered the Hunter River (called Coal River) and coal outcrops.
1797 - Parramatta Female Factory established.
1797 - Shoalhaven River discovered by George Bass.
1797 - Arrival of convict ship Britannia (27/5/1797).
1797 - Arrival of convict ship Ganges (2/6/1797).


1797 - George Bass set out from Port Jackson in the  Tom Thumb  with 6 volunteers.
1798
1798 - Arrival of convict ship Barwell (18/5/1798).
1797 - Arrival of convict ship Britannia (18/7/1798).
1798 - George Bass and Matthew Flinders sailed around Van Diemens Land (Tasmania) and proved it was an island.
1799
1799 - First coal exported from the Hunter.
1799 - First part of old Government House at Parramatta built.
1799 - Campbell & Co. trading company established on western shore of Sydney Cove.
1799 - Floods at the Hawkesbury River.
1798 - Arrival of convict ship Hillsborough (26/7/1799).
1800
1800 - First issue of government copper coins in New South Wales.
1800 - William Reid discovered the entrance to Lake Macquarie.
1800 - Major Joseph Foveaux appointed Acting Lieutenant Governor of Norfolk Island.
1800 - Captain Philip Gidley King replaces John Hunter as Governor (28/9/1800).
1800 - Arrival of convict ship Minerva (11/1/1800).
1800 - Arrival of convict ship Friendship (16/2/1800).
1800 - Arrival of convict ship Speedy (15/4/1800).                                                                             
Philip Gidley King1758 - 1808

1800 - Arrival of convict ship Royal Admiral (20/11/1800).
 
1801
1801 - Toongabbie Road (Junction Road) was made from Toongabbie Government Farm to Baulkham Hills
             and then Castle Hill Road (Old Northern Road) was built to the new Castle Hill Government Farm.
1801 - First local certificate of competence as a medical practitioner was issued by an official Colonial Medical Service panel to William Redfern.
1801 - Storehouse & private wharf erected by Robert Campbell.
1801 - Penal station is established at Newcastle to mine coal.
1801 - Exploration party proceeded up the Hunter River.
1801 - Female Orphan School established at George Street, Sydney.
1801 - Government Farm established at Castle Hill.
1801 - Floods on the Hawkesbury River.
1801 - Ticket of Leave System for convicts introduced.
1801 - Arrival of convict ship Anne (or Luz St. Anna) (21/2/1801).
1801 - Arrival of convict ship Earl Cornwallis (12/6/1801).
1801 - Arrival of convict ship Canada (14/12/1801).
1801 - Arrival of convict ship Minorca (14/12/1801).
1801 - Arrival of convict ship Nile (14/12/1801).

1801-03 - The French navigator Nicholas Baudin explored parts of the southern and northern Australian coasts.

1802
1802 - Penal establishment established at Hunter River.
1802 - First cedar cut for export from the Hunter River.
1802 - George Caley attempted to cross the Blue Mountains.
1802 - Francis Barrallier attempted to cross the Blue Mountains.
1802 - Arrival of convict ship Coromandel (13/6/1802).
1802 - Arrival of convict ship Hercules (26/6/1802).
1802 - Arrival of convict ship Atlas (7/7/1802).
1802 - Arrival of convict ship Perseus (4/8/1802).
1802 - Arrival of convict ship Atlas (30/10/1802).
1802 - Lieutenant John Murray discovers Port Phillip.
1802 - Lieutenant Charles Robbins lands on King Island and proclaims Van Diemens Land a British possession
1803
1803 - First newspaper  Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser  published.
1803 - First St. John s Church opened at Parramatta (11/4/1803).
1803 - First authorised Roman Catholic mass celebrated by Rev. James Dixon at Parramatta (15/5/1803).
1803 - Postal service commenced between Sydney and Parramatta.
1803 - Governor King forbade further access to the Southern Highlands and it was an offence to travel past the Cow Pastures (now Camden).
1803 - Stone convict barracks constructed at Government Farm, Castle Hill.
1803 - Arrival of convict ship Glatton (11/3/1803).
1803 - Arrival of convict ship Rolla (12/5/1803).
1803 - Arrival of convict ship Calcutta (9/10/1803).

Capt Arthur Phillip
       John Macarthur    1767  1834                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
James Ruse, Experiment Farm Cottage
Vessels of the First Fleet from National Library of Australia
Robert Hughes book "The Fatal Shore" is a must read!  It tells the story of early Australia.